twitter.png   youtube.png   facebook.png

Impact Assessment

Consolidated Bibliography

Aagaard-Hansen, J. & Svedin, U. (2009). ‘Quality Issues in Cross-disciplinary research: Towards a Two-Pronged Approach to Evaluation’, Social Epistemology, pp. 165-176.

Abitbol, Eric (2014) 'Assessing the Power and Practices of Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA)' in Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 9(1): 3-9.

Abitbol, E. (2013). Assessing the Impact of Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment: A North-­South Participatory Research Project. Submitted to International Development Research Centre (IDRC): 26.

Abitbol, E. (2012). Hydropolitical Peacebuilding: Israeli-Palestinian Water Relations and the Transformation of Asymmetric Conflict in the Middle East. Department of Peace Studies, School of Social and International Studies. Bradford, UK, University of Bradford. Doctor of Philosophy: 446.

Abitbol, E. (2009). "Developing Water and Marginalising Israel/Palestinian Peace: A Critical Examination of the Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal Feasibility Study Process." 5(1): 35-49.

Abitbol, E. (2006). "Giving the Dead Sea a New Life: Have All Options Been Responsibly Considered?"Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 3(1): 94-99.

ACDI, Évaluation institutionnelle de Développement et Paix – Rapport sommaire (Juin 2003).

Achitei, Simona (2014) 'Mainstreaming Failure or a Small Measure of Success? Observations from a Large-scale PCIA in Post-War Sri Lanka' in Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 9(1): 44-58.

Africa Peace Forum, CECORE, CHA, FEWER, International Alert, and Saferworld, (2004). ‘Conflict- Sensitive Approaches to Development, Humanitarian Assistance and Peacebuilding’– A Resource Pack, January 2004.

African Evaluation Association (AEA), (2001). ‘The African Evaluation Guidelines 2000’African Evaluation Association Secretariat et al. - January 2001. Unpublished raw data. Retrieved from:

Ahmed, Z. S. (2011). "Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA): Lessons from Pakistan." Peace and Conflict Review 5(2): 8.

Aizenman, J., Edison, H., Leony, L., & Sun, Y. (2011). Evaluating the Quality of IMF Research: A Citation Study. Independent Evaluation Office - International Monetary Fund, Washington D.C. ALNAP/ Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action, (2005). Assessing the Quality of Humanitarian Evaluations. ALNAP, London, Retrieved from:

American Evaluation Association, (2004). Guiding Principles for Evaluators

American Evaluation Association, (2011). ‘The Program Evaluation Standards: Summary Form’. AEA official website. Retrieved from:

American Journal of Evaluation, (2010). ‘Special Issue on Evaluation Field Building in South Asia’. Vol. 31 (2), (June), pp. 219-251.

Amnesty International (May 2011). Annual Report, Rwanda (Amnesty International – USA Section: Washington, DC). Available online:

Anderson, Mary B. (2004) ‘Experiences with Impact Assessment: Can we know what Good we do?’ Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management, accessed on 12th December 2009 at:

Anderson, Mary B., Chigas, Diana, Olson, Lara and Woodrow, Peter (2004). Reflecting on Peace Practice Handbook. Cambridge, MA: Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. Available from

Anderson, Mary B. and Olson, Lara (2003). Confronting war: Critical lessons for peace practitioners. Cambridge, MA: Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. Available from

Anderson, M. B., Ed. (2000). Options for Aid in Conflict: Lessons from Field Experience. Cambridge, MA, CDA Inc.

Anderson, Mary B. (1999). Do no harm: How aid can support peace – or war. Lynne Rienner, Boulder, CO.

Andras, P. (2011). ‘Research: Metrics, Quality, and Management Implications’. Research Evaluation, pp. 90-106.

Ansoms, An (2009). ‘Re-engineering Rural Society: The Visions and Ambitions of the Rwandan Elite’ African Affairs 108(431): 289-309.

Appleyard, S. (2002). A Rights-Based Approach to Development: What the policy documents of the UN, development cooperation and NGO agencies say. OHCHR, Geneva.

Arnold, D. (2008). ‘Cultural Heritage as a Vehicle for Basic Research in Computing Science: Pasteur’s Quadrant and a Use-Inspired Basic Research Agenda’. Computer Graphics Forum, Vol. 27 (8), pp. 2188–2196.

Arunachalam, S. (2009, May). Social Science Research in Asia: An analysis of the published journal literature. Report submitted to Institute of Social Studies Trust, New Delhi, India.

Asford, G. & Patkar, S. (2001). The Positive Path: Using Appreciative Inquiry in Rural Indian Communities. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Winnipeg, CA.

Ashworth, P. & Lucas, U. (2000). ‘Achieving Empathy and Engagement: A practical approach to the design, conduct and reporting of phenomenographic research’, Studies in Higher Education, 25:3, pp. 295-308.

Assefa, H. (1993). Peace and Reconciliation as a Paradigm. Nairobi, Nairobi Peace Initiative.

Atlantic Philanthropies (2006) Promoting an Inclusive Education System: Belfast: PA Consulting Group.

Austin, Alexander, Martina Fischer & Oliver Wils (2003). (eds.), Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment: Critical Views on Theory and Practice, Berghof HandBook Dialogue Series (Berlin: Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management).

Australasian Evaluation Society - AES (2012). Guidelines for the Ethical Conduct of Evaluations.

Australian Evaluation Society, (2003). ‘Evaluation Ethics and Quality: Results of a Survey of Australasian Evaluation Society’. Prepared by David Turner, AES, AES Ethics Committee.

Azzi, A. E. (2004). La paix à travers le partage du pouvoir et la reconnaissance mutuelle. L'Art de la Paix: Approche transdisciplinaire. P. Calame, B. Denis and É. Remacle. Bruxelles, P.I.E. - Peter Lang. 1 : 55-92.

Bamberger, Michael, Rugh, J. & Mabry, L. (2006). Real World Evaluation: Working Under Budget, Time, Data, and Political Constraints, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

Bamberger, Michale and R. Podems, Donna R. (2002) ‘Feminist Evaluation in the International Development Context’ in New Directions for Evaluation, no. 96, 2002 (83 – 96)

Barasa-Mang'eni, Edwin (2014) 'Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment in Somalia: Opportunities for Empowerment of Ethnic Minorities' Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 9(1): 59-73

Barbolet, Adam, Goldwyn, R., Groenewald, H. & Sherriff, A. (2005). ‘The utility and dilemmas of conflict sensitivity’. Berghof Handbook Dialogue Series No. 4 - New Trends in PCIA. Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin. 

Barnett, J. (January 2008). "Peace and Development: Towards a New Synthesis." Journal of Peace Research45: 75-89.

Barnett, Michael & Zürcher, C. (2008). ‘The Peacebuilders Contract’ in Paris, R. and Sisk, T. (forthcoming), The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations, Routledge, London.

Batliwala,Srilatha (2010). "Strengthening Monitoring and Evaluation for Women’s Rights: Twelve Insights for Donors, AWID. Retrieved from:

Batliwala and Pittman (2009) “Capturing change in women’s realities: The challenges of monitoring and evaluating our work”

Bauld, L., K. Judge, M. Barnes, M. Benzeval, M. Mackenzie and H. Sullivan (2005) ‘Promoting social change: The experience of Health Action Zones in England’, Journal of Social Policy 34(3): 427–45

Beck, U., A. Giddens, et al. (1994). Reflexive modernization : politics, tradition and aesthetics in the modern social order. Cambridge, Polity in association with Blackwell.

Becker, S., Bryman, A., & Sempik, J. (2006). ‘Defining ‘Quality' in Social Policy Research: Views, Perceptions and a Framework for Discussion’. Social Policy Association, Lavenham, Suffolk.

Belfast Interface Project. (1999). ‘Inner East/Outer West: Addressing Conflict in Two Interface Areas’.

Ben-Ner, Avner & Benedetto, G. (2003). ‘The Theory of Nonprofit Organisations Revisited’ in Anheier, H. K. & Ben-Ner, A. (eds) The Study of the Nonprofit Enterprise : Theories and Approaches, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, London. pp. 3-26.

Bernard, Ann and Greg Armstrong (2005). Framework for Evaluating Capacity Development in IDRC (IDRC: Ottawa, ON).

Berry, Leonard L. & Parasuraman, A. (1993). ‘Building a new academic field—The case of services marketing’, Journal of Retailing, Volume 69, Issue 1, Spring 1993. pp. 13-60.

Bhabha, H. K. (1994) The Location of Culture, London / New York: Routledge. Bibliography

Birdsall, K. & Kelly, K. (2007) Pioneers, partners, providers? Dynamics of civil society and AIDS funding in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: OSISA.

Black, Edwin (2003). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race, Four Walls, New York.

Boaz, A. & Ashby, D. (2003). ‘Fit for purpose? Assessing research quality for evidence based policy and practice’. Retrieved from the ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice (2011): Working Paper 11:

Boden, Rebecca & Epstein, D. (2006). ‘Managing the Research Imagination? Globalization and Research in Higher Education’, Globalization, Societies and Education. 4:2. pp. 223-236

Boix-Mansilla, V., Feller, I., & Gardner, H. (2006). ‘Quality assessment in interdisciplinary research education’. Research Evaluation, Surrey, UK.

Booth, D. (2011, April). ‘Working with the grain and swimming against the tide: Barriers to uptake of research findings on governance and public services in low-income Africa’. Retrieved from the UK Department for International Development, (2011, July) :

Bordo, S., (1990), Feminist, postmodernism, and gender-scepticism, in L.J. Nicholson (ed.) Feminism/Postmodernism, New York: Routledge.

Bourdieu, P.& Wacquant, L. (1992). Invitation to a Reflexive Sociology. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL.

Bourgois, P. (2001). ‘The power of violence in war and peace: Post Cold-War lessons from El Salvador’, Ethnography, 2(1), UC San Francisco, San Francisco, pp. 5-37. Retrieved from:

Bovens, M. (2007). ‘Analysing and Assessing Accountability: A Conceptual Framework’. European Law Journal, 13: 4, pp. 447–468.

Brahm, E. (2007). ‘Uncovering the Truth: Examining Truth Commission Success and Impact’, International Studies Perspectives 8: pp. 16-35.

Braun, M., Chudnovskly, M., Ducote, N. & Weyrauch, V. (2004). A comparative study of policy research institutes in developing countries

Bridges, D. (2009). ‘Research quality assessment in education: impossible science, possible art?’ British Educational Research Journal , pp. 497-517.

Brim, O.G. (1973). ‘Do we know what we are doing?’ In F.F. Heinman (Ed.), The future of foundations. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Bruce, S. (1994) The Edge of the Union: the Ulster Loyalist Political Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Bryman, S. (2008) Social Research Methods (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Buckles, D. and G. Rusnak (1999). Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource Management. Cultivating Peace. D. Buckles. Ottawa, International Development Research Centre in collaboration with the World Bank Institute/IBRD.

Burns, D. (2007). Systemic Action Research: A Strategy for Whole System Change. The Policy Press, University of Bristol, Bristol.

Burrell, G., & Morgan, G. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis: Elements of the Sociology of Corporate Life. Heinmann, New Hampshire, USA.

Burton, J. W. (1990a). Conflict: Resolution and Provention [sic]. Basingstoke, Macmillan.

Bush, K. (2009). ‘Aid for Peace: A Handbook for Applying PCIA to PEACE III Projects’. INCORE, Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Retrieved from:

Bush, K. (2007). Hands-On PCIA – A Handbook for Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment. Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin.

Bush, K. (2005). FIELD NOTES: Fighting Commodification and Disempowerment in the Development Industry: Things I Learned About Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) in Habarana and Mindanao," in David Bloomfield, Martina Fischer, and Beatrix Schmelzle, (eds.), The Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation (Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2005).

Bush, K. (2004a).’ Commodification, Compartmentalization, and Militarization of Peacebuilding’, in: Tom Keating and Andy W. Knight (eds.) Building Sustainable Peace. UN University/ University of Alberta Press, Tokyo & Edmonton, pp. 97-123.

Bush, K. (2003). ‘PCIA Five Years On: The Commodification of an Idea’ in ’Austin A., Fischer, M. & Wils, O. (eds.) Berghof Handbook Dialogue no. 1, Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment. Critical Views from Theory and Practice,Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin.

Bush, K. (2001a). ‘Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) Five Years On: The Commodification of an Idea’, in: The Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, on-line version. Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin.

Bush, K. (2001b). Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) of Swedish Development Cooperation With Sri Lanka. SIDA. Stockholm & Columbo.

Bush, K. (1998). A Measure of Peace: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) Of Development Projects in Conflict Zones. Ottawa, IDRC - The Peacebuilding and Reconstruction Program Initiative & The Evaluation Unit: 1-42.

Bush, K. & Fuat-Keyman, E. (1997) ‘Identity-Based Conflict: Rethinking Security in a Post-Cold War World’, Global Governance, Vol. 3, (3).

Bush, K. D. and R. J. Opp (1999). Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment. Cultivating Peace. D. Buckles. Ottawa, International Development Research Centre in collaboration with the World Bank Institute/IBRD.

Callon, M. (1986). ‘Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay’, in J Law (ed), Power, Action and Belief: a new sociology of knowledge? Routledge, London.

Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, (2006), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, M. & Rutnik, T., 2002. When and How to Use External Evaluators. The Association of Baltimore Area Grantmakers, Baltimore, MD.

Canadian Evaluation Society, (2010). Competences for Canadian Evaluation Practice. : CES, Ontario. Retrieved from:

Canadian Evaluation Society, (2012). Guidelines for Ethical Conduct, Available at:

Canadian Human Rights Mission to Sri Lanka, (1992). "Report" ,Toronto, CA.

Caplan, N, “The two communities theory and knowledge utilization” (1979) 22 American Behavioural Science 457-70.

Capron, A.M., (1989), ‘Human experimentation’, In R.M. Veatch (Ed.), Medical ethics (pp. 125-172). Jones & Bartlett, Boston, MA.

Carden, F. (2009). Knowledge to Policy: Making the most of development research. IDRC & Sage Publications, Ottawa & Delhi. Retrieved from:

Carden, F. (2007, December). ‘The Real Evaluation Gap’. Alliance Magazine. 12: 4. 

Carden, F. & Nielson, S., (2005). ‘Confluence and Influence: building network capacities in research networks’, in Stone, D. and Maxwell, S., (eds) Global Knowledge Networks and International Development: Bridges Across Boundaries (2005), Routledge, London, pp. 139-155.

CARE International/ Paul O’brien, Benefits-Harms Handbook DRAFT. Kampala, Uganda. 17 August 2001

CARE Presentation (June 1-5 2005) Sex workers: Multiple Identities, Bangkok.

Carey, Benedict (2008). “U.S. psychologists debate role in military interrogations,’ New York Times.

Carlson, Elof Axel (2001). The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press).

Catley, al., (2008). 'Participatory Impact Assessment: A Guide for Practitioners', Tufts University, Medford. Retrieved From:

CDA, (2007), Development assistance and humanitarian aid in conflict, Collaborative Learning Projects: Do No Harm, Available at:

Census of Population and Housing 2001, accessed on 16th January 2010 at

Chambers, R. (2010), Paradigms, Poverty and Adaptive Pluralism, IDS Working Paper. The Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 334, Brighton.

Chambers, R. (2008) Revolutions in Development Inquiry, Earthscan, London and Sterling, VA.

Chambers, R. (2009). ‘So that the poor count more: Using participatory methods for impact evaluation’, Journal of Development Effectiveness, 1(3), pp.243-246.

Chambers, Robert (2006). Transforming Power: From Zero-Sum to Win-Win? IDS Bulletin Volume 37 Number 6 November 2006.

Chambers, R. (1997) ‘Whose reality counts? Putting the First Last’, ITDG Publishing, London.

Chambers, R. (1994). The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. World Development, 22 (7): 953-969.

Chambers, R. & Pettit, J. (2004). ‘Shifting Power to make a difference’ in: Groves, L. & Hinton, R. ‘Inclusive Aid, changing power and relationships in international development’, Earthscan, London.

Chapman, J (2004 2nd Edition) Systems Failure.

Chen, H. T., Donaldson, S. I., & Mark, M. M. (2011). “Validity frameworks for outcome evaluation”. In H. T. Chen, S. I. Donaldson, & M. M. Mark (Eds.), Advancing validity in out- come evaluation: Theory and practice. New Directions for Evaluation, 130, 5–16.

Chigwedere, P., Seage, G., Gruskin, S., Lee, T. & Essex, M. (2008). Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 49, pp. 410-415.

Choi, B C K, T Pang, V Lin, P Puska, G Sherman, M Goddard, M J Ackland, P Sainsbury, S Stachenko, H Morrison, C Cottey, “Can scientists and policy makers work together?” (2005) Journal of Epidemial Public Health 59, pp. 632-637.

Chr. Michelsen Institute (1997). In association with Nordic Consulting Group, Evaluation of Norwegian Assistance to Peace, Reconciliation and Rehabilitation in Mozambique, Evaluation Report 4.97, Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Oslo.

Church, C. (2011). ‘Evaluating Peacebuilding – Not all it could be, yet’ in Berghof Foundation Handbook for Constructive Conflict Transformation, Berlin.

Church, C. & Rogers, M. (2006a). Monitoring & Evaluation for Conflict Transformation: Ethics. SFCG, Washington DC, pp. 188-198. Retrieved from:

Church, Cheyanne and Rogers, Mark (2006b). Designing for Results: Integrating monitoring and evaluation in conflict transformation programs. Washington, DC: Search for Common Ground.

Church, C. & Shouldice, J. (2003). The evaluation of conflict resolution interventions: Emerging theory and practice. INCORE, Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland.

Cicchetti, D. (1991). ‘The reliability of peer review for manuscript and grant submissions: A cross-disciplinary investigation’. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, pp. 119–135.

CIDA, (2004). The Compendium of Peacebuilding Tools prepared by (CIDA) for the Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (CPR) Peacebuilding Network. New York. Available for download at

Civicus, (2001). Monitoring and Evaluation: Overview. CIVICUS House, Johannesburg. Retrieved from:

Claire Donovan (2008), ‘The Australian Research Quality Framework a live experiment in capturing the social, economic, environmental, and cultural returns of publicly funded research,” in C.L.S. Coryn and M. Scrivens (eds.), Reforming the Evaluation of Research. New Directions for Evaluation 119, pp.47-60.

Clark, B.R. (1998). Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: Organizational Pathways of Transformation. Issues in Higher Education. Elsevier Science, New York.

Coffman, Julia & Tanya, (2011). Evaluation to Support Strategic Learning. Principles and Practices. Washington D.C.

Collaborative Learning Projects (2004) The Do No Harm Handbook (The Framework for Analyzing the Impact of Assistance on Conflict)

Collins, P. H. (1991a) ‘Learning from the outsider within – the sociological significance of black feminist thought’, in M. M. Fonow and J. A. Cook (eds) Beyond Methodology – Feminist Scholarship as Lived Research, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Collins, P. H. (1991b) Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Communities, Joint Learning Initiative for Children Affected by AIDS file/JLICAEconomic%20Strengthening%20and%20OVC%20in%20AsiaFinal.pdf

Concise Oxford Dictionary, (1989). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Conley-Tylor, Melissa, (2005). ‘A fundamental choice: internal or external evaluation?’ Evolution Journal of Australia, Vol. 4.

Connell, J. P. & Kubisch, A.C, (1998). ‘Applying a Theory of Change Approach to the Evaluation of Comprehensive Community Initiatives: Progress, Prospects and Problems’, in Fulbright-Anderson, K., Kubisch, A.C & Connell, J.P (eds) New Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives, Vol. 2, Theory, Measurement and Analysis, Aspen Institute, Washington, DC. pp. 15-44.

Contemporary Northern Ireland. Qualitative Research, 1, 205-222.

Coryn, C. (Pre-publication chapters from Coryn, C. L. S. (2013)). ‘What is Social Science Research and why would we want to evaluate it?’, in Coryn, C., Evaluating social science research: A handbook for researchers, instructors, and students, Guilford, New York. pp. 15-32.

Coryn, C. L. (2006). ‘The Use and Abuse of Citations as Indicators of Research Quality. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation’ , pp. 115-121.

Coryn, C. L., Hattie, J. A., Scriven, M., & Hartmann, D. J. (2007, December). ‘Models and Mechanisms for Evaluating Government-funded Research: An International Comparison’. American Journal of Evaluation , pp. 437-457.

Court, J. & Young, J. (2005). ‘Bridging research and policy in international development: context, evidence and links’ in Stone, D. & Maxwell, S. (eds) Global Knowledge Networks and International Development: Bridges Across Boundaries, Routledge, London: pp. 18-36.

Cox, R. W. (1987). Production, power and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History.  New York, Columbia University Press.

Cox, R. W. (2006). Problems of Power and Knowledge in a Changing World Order. Political economy and the changing global order. R. Stubbs and G. R. D. Underhill. Don Mills, Ont., Oxford University Press: 39-50.

Crotty, Michael J. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. Sage Publications Ltd, London.

CRS Southeast, East Asia Pacific Region (2004). Peacebuilding Technical Commission Meeting: Learning Document. Catholic Relief Services.

Curle, A. (1971). Making Peace. London, Tavistock Publications.

DAC. (2007). ‘Encouraging Effective Evaluation of Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activities: Towards DAC Guidance’, OECD Journal on Development, 8(3). Retrieved from:

Dahler-Larsen, P. (2005). ‘Evaluation and Public Management’ in Ferlie, E., Lynn, L. & Pollitt, C. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Public Management, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 615-642.

Darby, John, (1995). ‘Conflict in Northern Ireland: A Background Essay’, in Dunn, S. (ed) Facets of the Conflict in Northern Ireland, Macmillan Press Ltd, Basingstoke, pp. 15-42.

Dart, J. & Davies, R. (2003). ‘A Dialogical, Story-Based Evaluation Tool: The Most Significant Change Technique’. American Journal of Evaluation. 24: pp. 137-155

David, M. E. (2008). ‘Research Quality Assessment and the Metrication of the Social Sciences’. European Political Science, Palgrave Macmillan Ltd, Basingstoke. pp. 52-63.

Davies, Huw, Nutley, S. & Walter, I., (2005). Approaches to assessing the non-academic impact of social science research, Report of the ESRC symposium on assessing the non-academic impact of research, 12-13 May.

Davies, Rick and Dart, Jess (2005). The ‘Most Significant Change’ (MSC) Technique: A Guide to its use. Available from [accessed March 7, 2006].

De Beauvoir, S. (1972) The Second Sex, New York: Vintage.

De Lame, Danielle (2005). A Hill among a Thousand: Transformations and Ruptures in Rural Rwanda (University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, WI).

De Mel. Neloufer (2007) Militarizing Sri Lanka – Popular Culture, Memory and Narrative in the Armed Conflict, Los Angeles / London / New Delhi / Singapore: Sage Publications,

Department of Education Northern Ireland (2011) Enrolments at Schools in Northern Ireland. Bangor: Department of Education.

Des Forges, Alison (1999), Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda (Human Rights Watch: New York, NY).

DFID (2006) “Monitoring and Evaluation: A guide for DFID contracted research programmes”

DFID (2001). Conducting Conflict Assessments: Guidance Notes, DFID, London.

Dill, D D. (1999). “Academic accountability and university adaptation; the architecture of an academic learning organisation.” Higher Education, 38: 127-154.

Donaldson, S., (2009). ‘In search for blueprint for an evidence-based global society’ in Donaldson, S.I, Christina, A. & Mark, M.M. What counts as credible evidence in applied research and evaluation practice? Sage, Thousand Oaks, California. pp. 2-17.

Donaldson, T and L E Preston, “The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence and Implications”, Academy of Management Review 1995, 20:1, 65-91.

Donovan, C. (2009). ‘Demonstrating the Public Value of Humanities and Social Sciences Research: What Should Governments Want?’, SSHRC Congress (2009), Ottawa. (unpublished).

Donovan, C. (2008). ‘The Australian Research Quality Framework a live experiment in capturing the social, economic, environmental, and cultural returns of publicly funded research’ in Coryn, C. & Scrivens, M. (eds.), Reforming the Evaluation of Research: New Directions for Evaluation (119), pp.47-60.

Donovan, Claire (2007). ‘The qualitative future of research evaluation’. Science and Public Policy. pp. 585–597.

Downs, George & Stedman, S.J, (2002). ‘Evaluation Issues in Peace Implementation’, in Stedman, S.J, Rothchild, D. &Cousens, E. (eds), Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, Lynne Rienner, Boulder & London, pp. 43-69.

Duggan, Colleen (2012). ‘Show me your impact: Evaluating Transitional Justice in Contested Spaces’ , Journal of Planning and Program Evaluation 35:1 (February). pp. 199-205.

Dyer, S. & Demeritt, D. (2008). ‘Un-ethical review? Why it is Wrong to Apply the Medical Model of Research Governance to Human Geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 33, (1), pp. 46-64.

Earl, S., F.Carden and T. Smutylo (2001) Outcome Mapping: Building Learning and Reflection Into Development Programs. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

EarthRights International, (2009). Getting it Wrong: Flawed “Corporate Social Responsibility” and Misrepresentations Surrounding Total and Chevron’s Yadana Gas Pipeline in Military Ruled Burma/Myanmar. Available at:

Ebrahim, A. (2003). ‘Accountability in practice: mechanisms for NGOs’, World Development (31:5), pp. 813-829

Elkins, C. (2006). ‘Monitoring and Evaluation for Development in Peace-Precarious Situations’. Proceedings of the North-South Divide and International Studies “47th Annual ISA Convention”, 22-25 March 2006. San Diego Town and Country Resort and Convention Centre, San Diego. Retrieved from:

OCDE CAD, Les Lignes directrices du CAD, Prévenir les Conflits Violents : quels moyens d’actions?

Engelstad, E. and Gerrard, S. (eds) (2005) Challenging Situatedness, Eburon Delft: Eburon Academic Publishers.

England, K. (1994). ‘Getting Personal: Reflexivity, Positionality, and Feminist Research’, The Professional Geographer 46 (1), 80-9. Retrieved From:

Engs, Ruth C. (2005). The Eugenics Movement: An Encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, CT.

Escobar, A. (1998). "Whose Knowledge, Whose nature? Biodiversity, Conservation, and the Political Ecology of Social Movements" Journal of Political Ecology5: 53-82.

Esman, Milton (2007). Can Foreign Aid Moderate Ethnic Conflict? Peaceworks No. 13, US Institute for Peace, March 1997.

ESRC, (2010), Research Ethics Framework, (2010), Economic and Social Research Council, UK, Available at:

ESRC (2004) ‘Social Science Research Ethics in Developing Countries and Contexts’, Research Ethics Framework, Discussion Paper 3. Retrieved From:

Eyben, R. (2006). ‘Introduction’, in: Rosalind Eyben, Relationships for Aid, Earthscan, London& Sterling, VA.

Fadul, E. (2008) XVII International AIDS Conference Plenary: Transcript of ‘Panel Discussion on the State of the Epidemic’ August 4, 2008. Available at

Fast, Larissa A. & Neufeldt, Reina C. (2005). ‘Building Blocks for Peacebuilding Impact Evaluation’. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 2(2): pp. 24-41.

Fast, Larissa A., Schirch, Lisa & Neufeldt, Reina C. (2002). ‘Towards ethically grounded conflict interventions: Reevaluating challenges in the 21st Century’. International Negotiation 7: pp. 185-207.

Feinstein, A. (2007). After the Party: a personal and political journey inside the ANC. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

Feyen , Christoph and Hans Gsaenger (2003). PCIA Methodology: A Development Practitioner’s Perspective

FHI India, (2004). Technical Appraisal, Care and Support Programs.

FHI/USAID India, (2006). IMPACT Evaluation of a young migrant’s source, destination, transit multi-state migration project.

Fielding, N. (2010). Elephants, gold standards and applied qualitative research. Qualitative Research. pp. 123-127.

Finlay, A. (2001). ‘Reflexivity and the dilemmas of identification: an ethnographic encounter in Northern Ireland’ in Smyth, M. & Robinson, G. (eds), Researching Violently Divided Societies: Ethical and Methodological Issues. Pluto Press and UNUP, London.

Finlay, L. (undated) ‘‘Rigour’, ‘Ethical Integrity’ or ‘Artistry’? Reflexively Reviewing Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research’ BJOT: Scholarly Paper for Research Symposium series.

Fischer, F. (1993). ‘Citizen participation and the democratization of policy expertise: From theoretical inquiry to practical cases.’ Policy studies, 26:3.

Fligstein, N. (2001). ‘Social Skill and the Theory of Fields.’ Sociological Theory 19:2.

Ford, N., Mills, E.J., Zachariah, R., & Upshur, R., (2009), Ethics of conducting research in conflict settings, Conflict and Health.

Forman, Shephard & Steward, Patrick (2000). (eds) Good Intentions: pledges of aid for postconflict recovery.Lynne Rienner Publishers, London & Boulder, CO.

Foucault, Michel (1976a). Histoire de la sexualité, volume 1: La volonté de savoir, Gallimard, Paris.

Foucault, M. (1976b). Truth and Power. Michel Foucault: Power. M. Foucault and J. D. Faubion. New York, NY, The New Press: 111-133.

Fournier, D.M. (2005). ‘Evaluation’ in S. Mathison (ed), Encyclopedia of Evaluation, Sage, Thousand Oaks, California. pp. 139-40.

Freeman, R “Strategic Management: a stakeholder approach (1984) Pittman:Boston, Freeman, R. (1984). Strategic Management: a stakeholder approach, Pittman, Boston, MA.

French Evaluation Society, (2003). Charter of evaluation guiding principles for public policies and programmes. Available at:

Frumkin, Peter (2002). On Being Nonprofit: A Conceptual and Policy Primer. Harvard University Press, Harvard.

Fujii, Lee Ann (2008). ‘Ethical challenges of micro-level fieldwork’, Paper presented at the workshop on Field Research and Ethics in Post-Conflict Environments, December 4-5, 2008, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York.

Fukuyama, Francis (1998) ‘The End of History’ in Gearóid Ó Tuathail, Simon Dalby, Paul Routledge (eds.) The geopolitics reader, New York; Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Furlong, J. & Oancea, A. (2005). Assessing quality in Applied and Practice-based Educational Research. Oxford University Department of Educational Studies, Oxford.

Gaigals. C. & Leonhardt, M. (2001). Conflict- Sensitive Approaches to Development. International Alert, Saferworld & IDRC. Retrieved from:

Gallagher, T., Stewart, A., Walker, R., Baker, M. & Lockhart, J. (2010). ‘Sharing Education through Schools Working Together’. Shared Space, Issue 10. Community Relations Council, Belfast.

Garcé, A. and G. Uña. (2010). Think tanks and public policies in Latin America.

Geertz, Clifford (1973). The interpretation of cultures. Basic Books, New York.

Geuna, A and B R Martin (2003). “University research evaluation and funding: an international comparison” Minerva 41: 277–304.

Gevisser, M. (2007). Thabo Mbeki: the dream deferred. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.

Ghose T, Swendeman D, George S, Chowdhury D. Mobilizing collective identity to reduce HIV risk among sex workers in Sonagachi, India: the boundaries, consciousness, negotiation framework. Soc Sci Med 2008; 67(2):311-20.

Gibbons, M. Limoges, C., Nowotny, H.,Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge: the dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.

Gibelman, M., & Gelman, S. R. (2001). ‘Very public scandals: nongovernmental organizations in trouble.’ International Journal of Voluntary and Non-Profit Organizations, Vol. 12 (1).

Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Goodhand, Jonathan with Philippa Atkinson (2001). Conflict and Aid: Enhancing the Peacebuilding Impact of International Engagement (London: International Alert)

Goodhand, Jonathan, 2000. ‘Research in conflict zones: ethics and accountability’, Forced Migration Review, 8, 4: 12-15

Gordon, Robert (1988). ‘Apartheid's Anthropologists: The Genealogy of Afrikaner Anthropology’, American Ethnologist, Vol. 15, (3) (Aug), pp. 535-553

Graham, L. (2008). Rank and File: Assessing research quality in Australia. Educational Philosophy and Theory , pp. 811-815.

Grant, J., Brutscher, P.C., Kirk, S. E., Butler, L., & Wooding, S. (2010). Capturing Research Impacts: A review of international practice, Rand Europe. Cambridge, UK.

Grantcraft, (2006). Mapping Change: Using Theory of Change for Planning and Evaluation. Grantcraft, New York. Retrieved from:

Gread Gready, Paul (2009). ‘Reasons to Be Cautious about Evidence and Evaluation: Rights-based Approaches to Development and the Emerging Culture of Evaluation.’ Journal of Human Rights Practice. Vol 1, (3). pp. 380–401

Green Network of Sri lanka, (2002), People’s Report on Sustainable Development; Sri Lanka, Green Network of Sri Lanka

Greene, J. C. (2011). ‘The construct(ion) of validity as argument’ in H. T. Chen, S. I. Donaldson, & M. M. Mark (Eds.), Advancing validity in outcome evaluation: Theory and practice. New Directions for Evaluation, 130, (81–91).

Gregson, S., Nyamukapa, C., Schumacher, C., Mugurungi, O., Benedikt, C., Mushati P., Campbell C. & Garnett G.P. (2011) Did national HIV prevention programs contribute to HIV decline in Eastern Zimbabwe? Evidence from a prospective community survey. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, published online, PMID:2127862.

Griffiths, M. (1998) Educational Research for Social Justice, Buckingham / Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Grillo, T. (1995) ‘Anti-Essentialism and Intersectionality: Tools to Dismantle the Master's House.' 10 Berkeley Women's L.J. 16. Available at:

Grindle, M. & Thomas, J.W (1990). ‘After the Decision: Implementing Policy Reforms in Developing Countries.’ World Development, 18 (8), pp. 1163-1181.

Groundwater-Smith, S., & Mockler, N. (2007). Ethics in practitioner research: an issue of quality. Research Papers in Education , pp. 199-211.

Gruber, J. (2005). Does conflict increase vulnerability to HIV infection? Issues for a research agenda. African Journal of AIDS Research, 5(1), pp. 41-48.

Guba, G. G. and Lincoln, Y S (1994) ‘Competing paradigms in qualitative research’. In N K Denzin and Y Lincoln (eds) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Guena, A. & Martin, B.R (2003). ‘University research evaluation and funding: an international comparison.’ Minerva 41: pp. 277–304.

Gugerty, M.K. (2011). Voluntary Regulation of NGOs and Nonprofits. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Guggenbuhl-Craig, A, (1971), Power in the helping professions, Spring Publications, Inc, Dallas. 

Gumede, W. M. (2005). Thabo Mbeki and the Battle for the Soul of the ANC. Cape Town: Zebra.

Gutman, Roy & Rieff, D. (1999). Crimes of War: What the Public Should Know, W.W. Norton & Co., London & New York.

Haas, Peter (1992). ‘Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination.’ International Organization, 46:1, pp. 1-35.

Haddad, Marwan (2014) 'Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment of the Palestinian–Israeli Water Situation' Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 9(1): 74-88

Hall, Peter D. (2004). ‘A historical perspective on evaluation in foundations’ in Braverman, M., Constantine, A., Norman, N., & Slater, J.K (eds) Foundations and evaluation: Contexts and practices for effective philanthropy, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, USA. pp. 27-50

Hallward, M. C. (2006). "Natural Resource Transformation: Incorporating Identity."Journal of Peacebuilding and Development3(1): 48-62.

Halperin, D.T., Mugurungi, O., Hallett T., Muchini, B., Campbell, B., Magure, T., Benedikt, C., Gregson, S.A. (2011) A surprising prevention success: Why did the HIV epidemic decline in Zimbabwe? PLoS Med 8(2), published online, e1000414. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000414

Hammersley, M. (2008). ‘Troubling criteria: A critical commentary on Furlong and Oancea’s framework for assessing educational research.’ British Educational Research Journal, pp: 747-762.  

Hancock, G (1989), Lords of Poverty: the power, prestige, and corruption of the international aid business, The Atlantic Monthly Press, New York.

Hansard, Official Report (2010) Private Members’ Business: Integrated and Shared Education. 22nd November.

Haraway, D. (1988) ‘Situated knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective' in Feminist Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3. pp. 575-599.

Harding, S. (2004a) ‘Rethinking standpoint epistemology: what is strong objectivity?’ in S. Harding (ed.) The Feminist Standpoint Theory – Intellectual and Political Controversies, New York / London: Routledge.

Harding, S. (2004b) The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader – Intellectual and Political Controversies, New York / London: Routledge.

Harding, S. (1999) ‘After the Neutrality Ideal: Science, Politics and Strong Objectvity’ in Perspectives on Philosophy of Science in Nursing: An Historical and Contemporary Anthology (Eds.) E. Carol Polifroni and Marylouise Welch, Lippincott, Williams and Willkins, Philladelphia.

Hargie, O., Dickson, D., Mallet, J. & Stringer, M. (2008). ‘Communicating Social Identity: a study of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland’, Communication Research 25 (6), pp: 792–821. 

Hart, R (1992) Children’s Participation: From Tokenism to Citizenship. Florence: UNICEF International Child Development Center Innocenti Essay 4

Hasan, K. (2005, December 18). Indian scholar sifts 1971 fact from fiction. Daily Times.

Hawe, Penelope, Bond, L. & Butler, H., (2009). ‘Knowledge Theories Can Inform Evaluation Practice: What Can a Complexity Lens Add?’, New Directions for Evaluation ,(124), (Winter), pp. 89-100. 

Hay and Sudarshan (2010), “Making Research Matter in South Asia,” Economic and Political Weekly. Vol XLV No 3. Pg 34.

Hay, Katherine (2010). ‘Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions.’ American Journal of Evaluation. Volume 31, (2).

Hayes, B., McAllister, I. and Dowds, L. (2007) ‘Integrated Education, Intergroup Relations and Political Identities in Northern Ireland’ Social Problems 54 (4): 454 – 482.

Health and Peacebuilding Filter (HPBF) (Anne W. Bunde-Birouste, University of New South Wales 2005)  

Hearn, S. & Jones, H., (2009, October). Outcome Mapping: A Realistic Alternative for Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation, Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved from:

Heclo, H. (1978) ‘Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment’ in King, A. (ed), The New American Political System, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, Washington D.C.

Hendrick, Diane (2009). Complexity Theory and Conflict Transformation: An Exploration of Potential and Implications. Working Paper 17. Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University, Bradford.

Hermann, T. (2001). ‘The impermeable identify wall: the study of violent conflicts by “Insiders” and “Outsiders”’, in: Smyth, M. and Robinson, G. (eds) Researching Violently Divided Societies: Ethical and Methodological Issues. Pluto Press and UNUP, London.

Hey, V. (2000) ‘Troubling the auto/biography of the questions: re/thinking rapport and the politics of social class in feminist participant observation, genders and sexualities’, Educational Ethnography, 3, 16-183.

Heywood, M. (2010). Civil society and uncivil government: the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) versus Thabo Mbeki, 1998- 2008. In D.Glaser (Ed.) Mbeki and after, reflections on the legacy of Thabo Mbeki, pp.128-262. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2010.

Higgens, P., Chan, K., & Porder, S., (2006). ‘Bridge over a philosophical divide’, Evidence and policy 2:2, pp. 249-55.

Higher Education Funding Council of England (n. d.). Higher Education Funding Council of England . Retrieved January 25, 2012, from Research Excellence Framework :

Hillyard, Paddy, Rolston, Bill & Tomlinson, Mike, (2005). Poverty and Conflict in Ireland: An International Perspective, Institute of Public Administration/Combat Poverty Agency, Dublin.

Hoffman, Mark, (2003). ‘PCIA Methodology: Evolving Art Form or Practical Dead-End’, in Austin, A., Fischer, M., and Wils, O., (eds.). Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment: Critical Views on Theory and Practice. ,Berghof Handbook Dialogue Series (1),Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin, pp: 11-35. Available for download at

Hogan, P., (2005), Tsunami Report, Z – Doc 1, Butterfly Peace Garden, Batticaloa, Personal Communication.

Honea, G. E. (1992). Ethics and Public Sector Evaluators: Nine Case Studies, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia.

Hood Ward, Denice, Cassaro, Denice, A. (2002) Feminist Evaluation and the Inclusion of Difference, in New Directions for Evaluation, no. 96, Winter 2002 (27 – 40)

Hoque, M., & Itohara, Y. (2009). Women empowerment through participation in micro-credit programme: A case study. Bangladesh Science Publications.

Horowitz, Donald (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press).

House, E. R. (2008). ‘Blowback: Consequences of Evaluation for Evaluation’, American Journal of Evaluation , Vol. 29 (4), pp. 416-426.

House, Ernest (2004). The Role of the Evaluator in a political world,” Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, vol 19, no 2, Fall, pages 1-16

House, R. & Howe, K. (1999). Values in Evaluation and Social Research. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California.

Hughes, J., Donnelly, C., Gallagher, T. and Carlisle, K. (2010) School Partnerships and Reconciliation: an evaluation of school collaboration in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Queen’s University, School of Education.

IDEAS (2012). Crosswalk of Evaluator and Evaluation Manager Competencies and Characteristics. Retrieved from:

IDRC (2012). Evaluating Research Excellence: Main Debates. (Prepared by Ethel).

IDRC (2011). Evaluation in a Nutshell: Overview of evaluation, evaluation logic, evaluation Approaches, Models, and Designs.

IEG (2011). How to Write TORs for an Evaluation. The World Bank, Washington D.C. Retrieved from:

IFRG (2011). Project and Programme Monitoring and Evaluation Guide. IFRG, Geneva. Retrieved from:

Ingelaere, Bert (2010) ‘Do We Understand Life after Genocide? Center and Periphery in the Construction of Knowledge on Postgenocide Rwanda’ African Studies Review 53(1): 41-59.

International Crisis Group. (2010, December). Sri Lanka: After the War . International Crisis Group.

International Fund for Ireland (2010) Mission statement, accessible at

International Labor Organization, (2012, March). Rating the Quality of the Evaluation Report, ILO, Geneva. Retrieved from:

Iphofen, R. (2009) Ethical Decision Making in Social Research: A practical guide.  Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jacobsen, K. & Landau, L., (2003). Researching refugees: some methodological and ethical considerations in social science and forced migration, Working Paper 90, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, UNHCR, Geneva.

Jantza, T. L. and V. E. Jantzi (2009). "Development Paradigms and Peacebuilding Theories of Change: Analyzing Embedded Assumptions in Development and Peacebuilding."Journal of Peacebuilding and Development5(1): 65-80.

Jarman, Neil. (2005). ‘Changing places, moving boundaries: the development of new interface areas’, Shared Space, Northern Ireland. Accessible from:

Jenkins, R. & Goetz, A.M. (1999). ‘Accounts and accountability: Theoretical implications of the right-to-information movement in India’, Third World Quarterly 20:3.

Johnson, C., Whitty, B. & Hammer, M. (2008). Who do you work for? Establishing a better match between justifications of research. One World Trust, London.

Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation, (1994). The Program Evaluation Standards. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda (1996)."Synthesis Report," The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons From the Rwanda Experience (March). For detailed discussion of information and early warning, see "Study 2: Early Warning and Conflict Management," by Howard Adelman and Astri Suhrke (with Bruce Jones).

Jones, H. (2011). A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluating Policy Influence. Overseas Development Institute, London. Retrieved from: <>

Jones, N. & Preskill, H. (2009). A Practical Guide for Engaging Stakeholders in Developing Evaluation Questions. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton. Retrieved from:

Jones, N. & Walsh, C., (2008). ‘Policy briefs as a communication tool for development research’, Overseas Development Institute, London. pp. 7.

Jones, N. & Young. J. (2007). Setting The Scene: Situating DFID’s Research Funding Policy and Practice in an International Comparative Perspective: A scoping study commissioned by DFID Central Research Department. ODI, London.

Jordan, L, “Mechanisms for NGO accountability” Global Research Papers Institute, Series No. 3

Jupp, V. (ed.) (2006) The Sage Dictionary of Social Research Methods, London / Thousand Oaks / New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Jütersonke, O. and M. Kartas (2010). Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) - Madagascar. Geneva, Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding (CCDP) at the Graduate Institute of International Development Studies: 1-88.

Kamatsiko, Valarie Vat (2014) 'PCIA Theory in Field Practice: World Vision’s Pursuit of Peace Impact and Programming Quality Across Sectors' Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 9(1): 26-43

Kaufmann, Daniel, Aart Kraay and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton (2000).” Governance Matters: From Measurement to Action,” Finance and Development 37:2, (June).

Kearns, K.P, (1994). ‘The Strategic Management of Accountability in Nonprofit Organizations: An Analytical Framework’, 54 Public Administration Review, pp. 185-192.

Keeley, J. & Scoones, I. (2000). ‘Environmental Policymaking in Zimbabwe: Discourses, Science and Politics’ IDS Working Paper 116: London, pp. 38.

Keeley, J. & Scoones, I. (1999). ‘Understanding Environmental Policy Process: A Review’, IDS Working Paper 89, Institutes of Development Studies. Brighton, Sussex. pp. 50.

Kellogg Foundation, (1998, January). (eds) Evaluation Handbook. Kellogg Foundation, Michigan. Retrieved from: 

Kelly, K. (2009) Impact assessment of the (name withheld) research grantmaking in South Africa (2002-2009).

Kelly, K. (2005). Systems Effects of the HIV/AIDS Funding Environment in Swaziland. CADRE/Global Fund.

Kelly, K. & Birdsall, K. (2008) Funding for civil society responses to HIV/AIDS in Tanzania: Status, problems, possibilities. CADRE/ Ford Foundation East Africa Office.

Kelly, K., Birdsall, K., Tshose, P., Banati, P., Low-Beer, D. (2005). Community perspectives on systems effects of HIV/AIDS funding in South Africa. CADRE/Global Fund.

Kelly, K., Colvin, M. & Apane, D. (2007) Assessment of HIV/AIDS research practice and use in Swaziland: Towards a national research strategy. NERCHA, Swaziland.

Kelly, K. & Magongo, B. (2004). Assessing country level capacity for HIV/AIDS programme monitoring and evaluation: the case of Swaziland. In Africa Matters, Evaluation Matters: Joining Forces for Democracy, Governance and Development - Chapter 5: Developing Evaluation Capacity in Africa. Selected and peer reviewed proceedings of the Third Conference of the African Evaluation Association 1-4 December 2004, Cape Town, South Africa.

Kemper, Steven (1991). The Presence of the Past: Chronicles, Politics and Culture in Sinhala Life. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.

Kenna, R., & Berche, B. (2011, June). Normalization of peer-evaluation measures of group research quality across academic disciplines. Research Evaluation , pp: 107-116.

Kenyon, C. (2008) Cognitive dissonance as an explanation of the genesis, evolution and persistence of Thabo Mbeki’s HIV denialism. African Journal of AIDS Research 2008, 7(1), pp.29–35,     

Khan, K. (2008). Evaluation Challenges in Pakistan and Establishment of Pakistan evaluation network (PEN), Evaluation South Asia. Nepal: UNICEF.

Khattak, S. G. (2009). Research in Difficult Settings: Reflections on Pakistan and Afghanistan. Retrieved from IDRC:

Kingdon, J.R, (1995). Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies, Harper Collins, London. 

Kleinman, A, (2006), What really matters: Living a Moral Life Amidst Uncertainty and Danger, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Knox, C. (2010a) Sharing Education Programme: Views from the White Board. Jordanstown: University of Ulster.

Knox, C. (2010b) Devolution and the Governance of Northern Ireland. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Knox, C., (2010c). ‘Peace Building in Northern Ireland: A Role for Civil Society’. Social Policy and Society, 10(01), pp. 13-28.

Knox, Colin (2009). Suffolk and Lenadoon Peace-Building Plan: Capture the Learning III. School of Public Policy, The University of Ulster, Jordonstown.

Knox, C. (2001). Establishing research legitimacy in the contested political ground of contemporary Northern Ireland. Jordanstown: University of Ulster.

Kopp, S, B, (1961), If you meet the Buddha on the Road, Kill Him!: The pilgrimage of psychotherapy patients, Bantam Books, New York.

Koppell, J., (2005) ‘Pathologies of accountability: ICANN and the Challenge of “Multiple Accountabilities Disorder’”, Public Administration Review, 2005, (65) 1, pp. 94–108.

Kovats-Bernat, J. Christopher (2002) ‘Negotiating Dangerous Fields: Pragmatic Strategies for Fieldwork amid Violence and Terror’, American Anthropologist, 104(1), pp. 1-15.

Kushner, S. (2000), Personalizing Evaluation, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

Kusters, C.S.L. et al. (2011). Making evaluations matter: A practical guide for evaluators. Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University & Research centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Retrieved from:

Lardone , M., & Roggero, M. (n.d.). Study on monitoring and evaluation of the research impact in the public policy of Policy Research Institutes (PRIs) in the region. Retrieved July 2011, from Evidence Based Policy Development Network:

Latour, B. (1987). Science in action: how to follow scientists and engineers through society. Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Laudel, G., & Glaser, J. (2006). ‘Tensions between evaluations and communication practices’, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, pp. 289-295.

Lawson, Tony (1997). Economics and reality. Routledge, London.

Leaning, J. & Arie, S. (2001). ‘Human Security: A Framework for Assessment in Conflict and Transition’. Working Paper Series, Vol. 11, (8), Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard School of Public Health, Cambridge, MA.

Lederach, John Paul (2005). The Moral Imagination: The art and soul of building peace. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.

Lederach, John Paul (2003). The Little Book of Conflict Transformation. Intercourse, PA: Good Books. 

Lederach, John Paul (1997). Building Peace: Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.  

Lederach, John Paul, Neufeldt, Reina C. and Culberston, Hal (2007). Reflective Peacebuilding: A Planning, Monitoring and Learning Toolkit. The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies and Catholic Relief Services, Davao, Philippines. Available from

Leonhardt, Manuela (2000). Conflict Impact Assessment of EU Development Cooperation with ACP Countries – A Review of Literature and Practice. International Alert and Saferworld, London. Available for download at: 

Leonhardt, Manuela, Patricia Ardon, Njeri Karuru, Andrew Sherriff 2002. PCIA and NGO Peacebuilding – Experiences from Kenya & Guatemala: A Briefing Paper. London: International Alert.

Liang, L., Wu, Y., & Li, J. (2001). Selection of databases, indicators and models for evaluating research performance of Chinese universities. Research Evaluation , pp. 105-113.

Lindblom, C. (1959). ‘The Science of Muddling Through’, Public Administration Review, 19:2, pp. 79-88.

Lindquist, E A. (2001). Discerning Policy Influence: Framework for a Strategic Evaluation of IDRC-Supported Research. Victoria: University of Victoria.

Lingán, J., A. Cavender, T. Palmer and B. Gwynne (2010). Responding to development effectiveness in the global South. One World Trust / World Vision Briefing Paper Number 126.

Local Government Support Programm (LGSP) 2003. Walking the Path of Peace: Practicing the Culture of Peace, and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment. (Manila: LGSP).

London School of Economics, (2011). 'Maximizing the impact of academic research: A Handbook for Social Scientists' in Impact of Social Sciences. London: LSE Public Policy Group.

Mabry, L. (2010). ‘Critical Social Theory evaluation: Slaying the dragon’, In M. Freeman (Ed.), Critical social theory and evaluation practice. New Directions for Evaluation (127), pp. 83-88

Mackay, K. 1999. Evaluation capacity development: a diagnostic guide and action framework. ECD Working Paper Series, 6. Washington DC: World Bank Operations Evaluation Department.

Macaduac-Feronlin, Maria Cecilia and Norma V. Constantino (2014) 'Localizing Transformation: Addressing Clan Fueds in Mindanao ThroughPCIA' Journal of Peacebuilding and Development 9(1): 10-25  

Magar, Veronica (   ) “Evaluation, gender and the politics of change”

Malterud, K. (2001). Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines. The Lancet , pp. 483-488. 

Marginson, Simon and Mark Considine (2000), The Enterprise University: Power, Governance and Reinvention in Australia (Cambridge University Press: Victoria, Australia).

Marie Smyth and Gillian Robinson (eds.), Researching Violently Divided Societies, (London and Tokyo: Pluto United Nations University Press, 2001).

Marjanovic, S., Hanney, S., & Wooding, S. (2009). A historical reflection on research evaluation studies, their recurrent themes and challenges . RAND Corporation, Cambridge.

Martí, J., & Villasante, T. R. (2009). ‘Quality in Action Research: Reflections for Second-Order Inquiry.’ Systemic Practice and Action Research , pp. 383-396.

Martin, Ben R. (2011). ‘The Research Excellence Framework and the “impact agenda”: are we creating a Frankenstein monster?’ Research Evaluation, 20(3), September, pp. 247–25.

Martin, Ben R. & Whitley, Richard (2010). ‘The UK Research Assessment Exercise: a case of regulatory capture?’ in Whitley, R. Gläser, J. & Engwall, L. (eds), Reconfiguring Knowledge Production: Changing Authority Relationships in the Sciences and their Consequences for Intellectual Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 51–80.

Maynard, M. (2004) ‘Methods, practice and epistemology: The debate about feminism and research’, in C. Seale (ed.) Social Research Methods – A Reader, London / New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

McCoy, Mairead and Hargie, Gwen D. W. (2001) ‘Evaluating Evaluation: Implications for Assessing Quality’ in International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 14 / 7 (312 -327)

McGarry, J. & O’Leary, B. (1995a) ‘Five fallacies: Northern Ireland and the liabilities of liberalism’ Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18 (4): pp. 837–861.

McGarry, J. & O’Leary, B. (1995b) Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

McGlynn, C. (2007) ‘Rhetoric and reality: are integrated schools in Northern Ireland really making a difference?’ Irish Educational Studies: 26 (3): pp. 271–287.

MDGIF, (2010). Improving Cultural Understanding in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Improvement Plan. Culture and Development. Retrieved from:

Melvern, Linda (2000). A people betrayed: the role of the West in Rwanda's genocide. (London; New York: Zed Books). This is a website that catalogues the structure and logic of a range of applied methodologies along with examples of their application. It is a useful effort to avoid the endless reinvention of the wheel. It includes a version of PCIA.

Meyer, J., and Scott. W.R, (1983). Organizational Environments. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.

Mies, M (1991) ‘Women’s research or feminist research? The debate surrounding feminist science and methodology’, in M. M. Fonowand J. A. Cook (eds) Beyond Methodology – Feminist Scholarship as Lived Research, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Miller, C. and Razavi, S. (1998) (eds) Missionaries and Mandarins: Feminist Engagement with Development Institutions, London: Intermediate Technology Publications / United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, ‘Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008–2012 (MINECONFIN, Kigali, 2007), p. 13.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. November 2006. Evaluation Questions. Designgrafik, Copenhagen. pp. 46-61. Retrieved from:

Mintzberg, H. (2007). Tracking strategies … towards a general theory. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mintzberg, Henry, Lampel, J. & Ahlstrand, B. (1998). Strategy Safari: The complete guide throught the wilds of strategic management. Prentice Hall, London, United Kingdom.

Misra, A. (2004). Afghanistan: the labyrinth of violence. Retrieved August 18, 2011, from Google books:

Mitchell, R.B, Clark, W.C & Cash, D.W (2006) ‘Information and influence’, in Mitchell, R.B., Clark, W.C., Cash, D.W, and Dickson, N.M (eds) Global Environmental Assessments: Information and Influence, MIT Press, Boston. pp. 339.

Mitleton-Kelly, Eve (2007). LSE Complexity Research Group Welcome to Complexity Programme. [Online] 2007. [Cited: 25 September 2007.]

Mitleton-Kelly, Eve (2005).A Complexity Approach to Co-creating an Innovative Environment’, in Nolas, S.M., Garcia-Lorenzo, L., de Zeeuw, G., Sell-Trujillo, L. (eds) World Futures Journal: Special Issue on Complexity and Innovation, 2005.

Mitleton-Kelly, Eve (2004). ‘Knowledge Generation & Sharing’, Knowledge Anywhere Anytime Workshop 29-30 April 2004. [Online]

Mitleton-Kelly, Eve (2003). Ten Principles of Complexity and Enabling Infrastructures. Complex Systems and Evolutionary Perspectives on Organisations: The Application of Complexity theory to Organisations. Elsevier, Salt Lake City.

Molund, S. & Schill, G. (2004). Looking Back, Moving Forward: Evaluation Manual. SIDA publications, Stockholm. Retrieved from: <>

Mookherjee, N. (2008, March). Skewing the history of rape in 1971: A prescription for reconciliation? Retrieved from the Bangladesh Genocide Archive

Morariu, J. (2012). Six Pieces of Advice to Demystify Evaluation. Community Tech-Knowledge official website. Retrieved from:

Morris, Michael (2010). Moral and Ethical Issues in Evaluation. International Encyclopedia, pp. 622-628.

Morris, Michael (2007) Evaluation Ethics For Best Practice: Cases and Commentaries. Guildford Press, New York.

Morris, M., (1999), Research on Evaluation Ethics: What have we learned and why it is important?, New Directions for Evaluations, No. 82, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Morris, M., (1998). Ethical Challenges, Arnerican Joumal of Evaluation, 19, 381-382.

Morris, Michael & Clark Brittany (2009), ‘You Want me to Do WHAT? Pressure to Misrepresent Findings’, Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Evaluation Association. Orlando, Florida.

Moser, Caroline (1993) Gender Planning and Development – Theory, Practice and Training, London / New York: Routledge.

Mulgan, R. (2000). ‘”Accountability”: An Ever-expanding Concept?’ Public Administration 78:3, pp. 555-573.

Murdukhayeva, E. (2009, April). Precedent, Protest and Politics: Changes in the Prosecution of Rape in England, 1810-1845. Retrieved from Columbia University - History Department, (August, 2011):

National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research, (2005). What are the Standards for Quality Research - Focus Technical Brief . Retrieved from the National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research (September 22, 2011):

National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (2000). Nation-wide Grassroots Consultations Report: Unity and Reconciliation Initiatives in Rwanda (NURC: Kigali). 

Nattrass, N. 2007. Mortal combat: AIDS denialism and the struggle for antiretrovirals in South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

NCIPC & CDS, (2009). Evaluation for Improvement – A Seven-Step Empowerment Evaluation Approach for Violence Prevention Organizations. National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control and Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:

Nelson, Jane (2000). The Business of Peace: The private sector as a partner in conflict prevention and resolution, International Alert, Council on Economic Priorities, and The Prince of Wales Leaders Forum, London.

Newbury, David and Catharine Newbury (2000). “Bringing the Peasants Back In: Agrarian Themes in the Construction and Corrosion of Statist Histiography in Rwanda” American Historical Review 105(3): 832-878.

Newbury, David and Filip Reytjens (2010). ‘Alison Des Forges and Rwanda: From Engaged Scholarship to Informed Activism.’ Canadian Journal of African Studies 44(1): 35-74.

Newell, P. (2006). ‘Taking accountability into account: the debate so far’ in: Newell, P. & Wheeler, J. (eds) Rights, resources and the politics of accountability, Zed Books, London.

Newman, D.L & Brown, R.D (1996). Applied ethics for program evaluation, Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.

Nightingale, Paul & Scott, Alister (2007). ‘Peer review and the relevance gap: ten suggestions for policy-makers’, Science and Public Policy, 34(8), October, pp.543–553.

Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey (2010) results accessible at:

Nutley, S., Percy-Smith, J., & Solesbury, W. (2003). Models of research impact: a cross-sector review of literature and practice. Learning and Skills Research Centre, London.

Oakley, A. (2000) Experiments in Knowing Gender and Method in the Social Sciences, Cambridge: Polity Press / Blackwell Publishers.

Oakley, A. (1972) Sex, Gender and Society, London: Temple Smith.

OECD (2012). Evaluating Peacebuidling Activities in Settings of Conflict and Fragility – Improving Learning for Reseults. DAC Guidelines and Reference Series. OECD, Paris, France.

OECD (2010). ‘Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – Development Assistance Committee, “Quality Standards for Development Evaluation”’. DAC Guidelines and Reference Series. OECD, Paris, France. OECD [Online]. Available at:

OECD (2008). Guidance on Evaluating Conflict Prevention and Peace Building Activities. OECD Press, Paris, France.

OECD DAC (2006). ‘DAC Evaluation Quality Standards – Draft for Test Application Phase’, DAC Network on Development Evaluation, OECD, Paris.

OECD DAC (2002a) . Evaluation and Aid Effectiveness. Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management.

OECD (2002b). Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management. OECD Press, Paris, France. Retrieved from:

OECD DAC (2001). DAC Guidelines: Helping to Prevent Violent Conflict   (Paris. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)

OECD DAC (1999). The Limits and Scope for the Use of Development Cooperation Incentives and Disincentives for Influencing Conflict Situations (with Case Studies on Sri Lanka, Rwanda, Bosnia & Afghanistan) (Paris: OECD DAC).

OECD DAC (1997a). Evaluation of Programs Promoting Participatory Development and Good Governance – Synthesis Report, DAC Expert Group on Aid Evaluation, Paris.

OECD (1997b). The evaluation of scientific research: Selected experiences. OECD Press, Paris, France.

OECD DAC, (1991). Quality Standards for Development Evaluation, Available at:

O'Gorman, L. (2008, January ). The (frustrating) state of peer review. Retrieved from the International Association for Patter Recognition Newsletter (July, 2011):

O'Neil, M. (2002). Commentary: We May Need a New Definition for Research Excellence. University Affairs , Ottawa, CA.

Onyancha O.B. (2008) Growth, productivity, and scientific impact of sources of HIV/AIDS research information, with a focus on eastern and southern Africa African Journal of AIDS Research, 7(1), 2008, pp. 55-70

Onyancha. O. B. & Ocholla, D.N. (2009) Is HIV/AIDS in Africa distinct? What can we learn from an analysis of the literature? Scientometrics, 79(2), pp.277-296.

Onyancha. O. B. & Ocholla, D.N. (2004) A comparative study of the literature on HIV/AIDS in Kenya and Uganda: A bibliometric study. Library & Information Science Research Volume 26(4), pp.434-447

Orb, A., Eisenhauer, L., and Wynaden, D., (2000), Ethics in Qualitative Research, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33:1, 93-96.

Orjuela, Camilla (2003). ‘Building Peace in Sri Lanka: a Role for Civil Society?’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 40, (2), pp. 195-212.

Ortengren, K. (2004). The Logical Framework Approach: A Summary of the Theory behind the LFA Method. SIDA publication, Stockholm. Retrieved from:

Otero, E. (2010). Improving Cultural Understanding in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Mid-term Evaluation. MDGIF, Retrieved from:

Ottoson, Judith M., Green, L.W., Beery, W.L., Senter, S.K., Cahill, C.L., Pearson, D.C., Greenwald, H.P., Hamre, R. & Laura Leviton, (2009) ‘Policy-Contribution Assessment and Field-Building Analysis of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Active Living Research Program’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 36, Issue 2, Supplement, February 2009, pp. S34-S43.

Outcome Mapping Community, (2006). Outcome Mapping and the Logical Framework Approach: Can they share a space? Outcome Community website. Retrieved from:

Outcome Mapping, (2008). Frequently Asked Questions. IDRC Evaluation, Ottowa. Retrieved from:

Overseas Development Institute (2004) Bridging research and policy in international development. An analytical and practical framework. Briefing Paper. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Oxfam, (2007). The Good Guide: Impact Measurement and Accountability in Emergencies. BEBCD Distribution, Dorset. Retrieved from:>

Oxford Economics (2010) Developing the Case for Shared Education, Scoping Paper. Belfast: Oxford Economics.

Paffenholz, Thania (2005a). More field notes: Critical issues when implementing PCIA

Paffenhoz, Thania (2005b). Third Generation PCIA: Introducing the Aid for Peace Approach, Berghof Research Center, Berlin.

Paffenholz, Thania & Reychler, Luc (2005c). ‘Towards better policy and programme work in conflict zones: Introducing the ‘Aid for Peace’ Approach’. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 2(2): pp.6-23.

Paffenholz, Thania & Reychler, Luc (2007). Aid for Peace: A Guide to Planning and Evaluation for Conflict Zones. Nomos, Baden-Baden.

Paffenholz, Thania and Luc Reychler (2004). Introducing the Peace and Conflict Assessment Model (PCA). Version of the authors 30.6.2004, available from:

Pal, S.P. (2009, March). ‘Status of Development Evaluation in Indian – An Overview’, Paper presented at the Perspectives on Impact Evaluation Conference, Cairo, Egypt.

Pasteur, K. (2006). ‘Learning for development’, in Eyben, R., (ed.) Relationships for aid 2006, Earthscan, London.

Paterson, O. (2010) ‘Schools strategy is a criminal waste of public money’. Belfast Telegraph 6th October: page 4.

Patton, Michael Q. (2010). Developmental Evaluation. Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use. Guilford Press, Newark.

Patton, Michael Q. (2008) Utilization-Focused Evaluation (4th edition). Sage, London

Patton, Michael Quinn (2002) “Feminist, Yes, but Is It Evaluation?” in New Directions for Evaluation, no. 96, Winter 2002, (97 – 108).

Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) Handbook, Version 4, Peacebuilding Centre, 2013 at

Peiris, W. A. A. S. (2001) accessed on 16th January 2010 at

Petit-Zeman, S. (2003, January 16). ‘Trial by peers comes up short’. The Guardian,

Pettigrew, T. & Tropp, L. (2000) ‘Does intergroup contact reduce prejudice: recent meta-analytic findings’ in S. Oscamp (ed.) Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ. Pp: 93-114.

Phillips, B. D, and Morrow, B. H., (2005), Social Science Research Needs: A Focus on Vulnerable Populations, Forecasting and Warnings, Hurricane Forecast Socio-economic Workshop, Pomona, California.

Pisani, E. (2008) The wisdom of whores: Bureaucrats, brothels, and the business of AIDS. London, Granta Books.

Pistono, S. P. (1998). ‘Susan Brownmiller and the History of rape’, Women's Study, pp: 265-276.

Pollitt, C. (2005). The Oxford Handbook of Public Management. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Posner, Paul L. (2009). ‘The Pracademic: An Agenda for Re-Engaging Practitioners and Academics.’ Public Budgeting and Fianance 29(1): 12-26.

Potts, M., Halperin, D.T., Kirby, D., Swidler, A., Marseille, E., Klausner, J.D., Hearst, N., Wamai, R.G., Kahn, J.G. & Walsh, J. (2008) Reassessing HIV prevention. Science 320 (9 May), pp. 749–750.

Poudel, P. & Carryer, J. (2000). ‘Girl-trafficking, HIV / AIDS, and the position of women in Nepal’. Gender and Development, 8(2), pp. 74-79.

Prendergast, John & Scott, Colin (1996). Aid With Integrity, Avoiding the Potential of Humanitarian Aid to Sustain Conflict: A Strategy for USAID/ BHR/ OFDA in Complex Emergencies, Occasional Paper (2), Prepared for the Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance, Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance US Agency for International Assistance.

Preskill, H. & Jones, N. (2009). A Practical Guide for Engaging Stakeholders in Developing Evaluation Questions. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Series, Princeton, NJ. Retrieved from:

Pross, Paul, (1986). Group Politics and Public Policy. Oxford University Press, Toronto.

Ramalingam, Ben et al. (2008). Exploring the Science of Complexity .Ideas and implications for humanitarian and development efforts, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), London.

Ramalingam, B. (2006). Tools for Knowledge and Learning: Guide for Development and Humanitarian Organisations. OCDI, London, Retrieved from:

Ramazanoglu, C. and Holland, J. (2002) Feminist Methodology Challenges and Choices, London / Thousand Oaks / New Delhi: Sage Publications.

RAND Corporation, (2011, November). RAND's Standards for High-Quality Research and Analysis. Retrieved from RAND Corporation:

Raudonis, B.M. (1992), ‘Ethical considerations in qualitative research with hospice patients’, Qualitative Health Research, 2(2), pp. 238-249.

Ravallion, Martin (2009). ‘Should the Randomistas Rule?’, Economists Voice - February. Available from

Raz, J. (1986). The Morality of Freedom, Oxford University Press, New York.

Reay, D. (1996) ‘Insider perspectives or stealing the words out of women’s mouths, Feminist Review, 53, Summer, 57-73.

REF 2014, (2011, July). REF 2014: Assessment Framework and guidance on submission. HEFCE, UK.

Reimers, F. & McGinn, N. (1997). Informed Dialogue: using research to shape education policy around the world, (1997) Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, CT.

Retolaza-Eguren, Inigo (2011). Theory of Change: A thinking and action approach to navigate in the complexity of social change processes. HIVOS, UNDP, Democratic Dialogue. Retrieved From:

Reynoso-Vallejo, Humberto (2012), Humberto Reynoso-Vallejo on Cultural Competence and Cultural Humility in Evaluation, AEA360, Available at:

Rich, A. (1980) ‘Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian experience’, Signs Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 5 (4), (631–660).

Robinson, P. (2010) ‘First Minister argues for a single education system in Northern Ireland’. Peter Robinson’s speech to Castlereagh Council, 15th October – accessible at:

Rodrik, D. (2011, June 10). Dani Rodrik's weblog: Unconventional thoughts on economic development and globalization. Retrieved June 2011, from A rejection letter I would like to receive from a journal one day:

Roe, E M. (1991). ‘Development narratives, or making the best of blueprint development’, World Development 19:4, pp. 2878.

Roebber, P. J., & Schultz, D. M. (2011, April 12). Peer Review, Program Officers and Science Funding. Retrieved from PLoS One (2011, July 25) :

Rons, R., De Bruyn, A., & Cornelis, J. (2008). ‘Research evaluation per discipline: a peer-review method and its outcomes’. Research Evaluation , pp: 45-57.

Ross, Marc Howard (2003). PCIA as a Peacebuilding Tool

Rouge, Jean-Charles (2004).The Origin and Development of the African Evaluation Guidelines’, New Directions for Evaluation, Winter: 104. Wiley Periodicals, Hoboken. NJ.

Rowland, F. (2002, October). The Peer Review Process. Retrieved from the Joint Information Systems Committee (2011, July) :

Ruegg, R., & Feller, I. (Eds.). (2002). A toolkit for evaluating public R&D investment: Models, methods, and findings from ATP’s first decade. U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington D.C.

Ruegg, R., & Jordan, G. (2007). Overview of evaluation methods for R&D programs: A directory of evaluation methods relevant to technology development programs. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington D.C.

Ruggie, J. G. (1998). Constructing the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalisation. London, Routledge.

Russ-Eft, D., & Preskill, H. (2001). Evaluation in organizations: A systematic approach to enhancing learning, performance, and change. Perseus, Boston.

Saari, E., & Kallio, K. (2011). ‘Developmental Impact Evaluation for Facilitating Learning in Innovation Networks’, American Journal of Evaluation , pp. 227-245.

Sabatier, P. (1988). ‘An advocacy coalition framework of policy change and the role of policy-oriented learning therein’, Policy sciences 21: pp: 129.

Sabatier, Paul and Jenkins-Smith, H.C, (2003). Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Approach, Westview Press, New York.

Said, E. W., (1993), Culture and Imperialism, New York: Random House.

Said, E. W., (1978), Orientalism, New York: Pantheon Books.

Sastry, T. & Bekhradnia, B. (2006). Using metrics to allocate research funds: initial response to the Government’s consultation proposals. Oxford Higher Education Policy Institute (HEPI), Oxford.

Save the Children (2000). ‘Children and Participation. Research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people’, Save the Children UK. Retrieved from:

Schepper-Hughes, Nancy & Bourgois,P.(2004). ‘Introduction’, in their (eds.) Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. pp: 1-32.

Schmelzle, Beatrix (2005). New trends in Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment: Introduction. Berghof Handbook Dialogue Series (4), New Trends in PCIA. Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin. Available from:

Schmit, Bettina (1996). Creating Order: Culture as Politics in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century South Africa (The Hague: CIP-Gegevens Koninklijke Bibliotheek).

Schoenfeld, S., E. Abitbol, et al. (2007). Retelling the Story of Water in the Middle East: Reflections On and About a Conversation at the Dead Sea. Intergrated Water Resources Management and Security in the Middle East. C. Lipchin, E. Pallant, D. Saranga and A. Amster. Dordrecht, Springer, in Cooperation with with NATO Public Diplomacy Division

Schram, S F. (1993). ‘Postmodern Policy Analysis: Discourse and Identity in Welfare Policy’, Policy Sciences, 26:3. pp: 249-270

Schwandt, Thomas. (2008). ‘The Relevance of Practical Knowledge Traditions to Evaluation Practice’, in Smith, Nick & Brandon, Paul (ed) Fundamental Issues In Evaluation. Guildford Press, New York.

Scott, J. W. (1991) ‘Gender: A useful category of historical analysis’, in A. Rao (ed.) Women’s Studies International – Nairobi and Beyond, New York: The Feminist Press

Scriven, M. (2001) Evaluation Future: Tense. American Journal of Evaluation, Vol. 22, No. 3.

Scriven, M. (1996) ‘Types of Evaluation and Types of Evaluators’, Evaluation Practice, 17: 151-162.

Scriven, M. (1991). Evaluation thesaurus (4th ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Seale, C. (1999) The Quality of Qualitative Research, London / Thousand Oaks, CA /

Sewell,W. (1992). ‘A Theory of Structure: Duality, Agency, and Transformation’, American Journal of Sociology 99: pp. 1–29.

Seymour, F. (2011, June 27). Does the pressure for impact compromise research? Retrieved from the Forests Blog (2011, June).

Shiva Kumar, A.K. (2010), ‘A Comment on “Evaluation Field Building in South Asia: Reflections, Anecdotes, and Questions,”’ American Journal of Evaluation, Vol. 31, (2)

SIDA, Assessment of Lessons Learned from Sida Support to Conflict Management and Peacebuilding, 3 Vols., Sida Dept for Coordination with NGOs and Humanitarian Assistance. Stockholm, Sweden.

Sielbeck-Bowen Kathryn A., Brisolara Sharon, Seigart Denise, Tischler Camille, Whitmore Elizabeth, (2002) ‘Exploring Feminist Evaluation: The Ground from Which We Rise’ in New Directions for Evaluation, no. 96, Winter (27 – 40)

Skeggs, B. (1994) ‘Situating the production of feminist ethnography’, in M. Maynard

Slaughter, S. & Rhoades, G., (1997). Academic capitalism and the new economy: markets, state, and higher education. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Smith, D. (2004) ‘Women’s perspective as a radical critique of sociology’, in S. Harding (ed.) The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader, New York / London: Routledge.

Smith, Lisa C. & Subandoro, Ali (2007). Measuring Food Security – Using Household Expenditure Surveys. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. pp. 91. Retrieved from :

Smyth, M, “Introduction” in Marie Smyth and Gillian Robinson, (2001) Researching Violently Divided Societies (London, Sterling VA).

Smyth, M. & Robinson, G. (eds.) (2001), Researching Violently Divided Societies, Pluto United Nations University Press, New York & Tokyo.

Sorensen, Ninna Nyberg, Stepputat, Finn and Van Hear, Nicholas (2000). Assessment of Lessons Learned from SIDA Support Conflict Management and Peacebuilding – State of the Art/ Annotated Bibliography, SIDA Evaluation 00/37:1, SIDA/Dept for Cooperation with NGOs and Humanitarian Assistance, Stockholm.

Spar, D. & Dail, J. (2002). ‘Of Measurement and Mission: Accounting for Performance in Non-Governmental Organizations’, Chicago Journal of International Law (3). pp. 171.

Spencer, L., Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., & Dillon, L. (2003). Quality in Qualitative Evaluation: A framework for assessing research evidence. UK Government Chied Social Researcher's Office .

Spiegel, P.B., Bennedsen, A.R., Claass, J., Bruns, L., Patterson, N., Yiweza, D. & Schilperoord, M. (2007) Prevalence of HIV infection in conflict-affected and displaced people in seven sub- Saharan African countries: a systematic review. The Lancet 369, pp. 2187–2195.

SSHRCC (2004). The Use of Bibliometrics in the Social Sciences and Humanities. Ottawa: The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. Retrieved from:

Stame, N. (2004). “Theory-led evaluation and types of complexity,” Evaluation, 10(1), pp. 58-76.

Stephen, C. & Daibes, I. (2010). Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams. Retrieved from the Global Health Action (2011, July 4).

Stone, D. (2005). ‘Knowledge Networks and Global Policy’, in Stone, D. & Maxwell, S. (eds) Global Knowledge Networks and International Development: Bridges Across Boundaries (2005), Routledge, London. pp. 89-105.

Stringer. M., Irwing, P., Giles, M., McClenahan, C., Wilson, R. & Hunter, J. A. (2009). ‘Intergroup contact, friendship quality and political attitudes in integrated and segregated schools in Northern Ireland’ British Journal of Educational Psychological Society, 79: pp. 239-257.

Sullivan, H. & Stewart, M. (2006). ‘Who Owns the Theory of Change?’ in Evaluation, 12(2). pp. 179-199.

Summer, Andy, Ishmael-Perkins, Nick, Lindstrom, Johanna (2009). "Making Science of Influencing: Assessing the Impact of Development Research,' Institute of Development Studies Working Paper 335, Brighton: University of Sussex.

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, (2009). Knowledge Management Toolkit. FFA & SDC, Berne. Retrieved from:

Tatavarti, R., Sridevi, N., & Kothari, D. (2010). ‘Assessing the quality of university research – The RT Factor’ General Science, pp. 1015-1019.

The Daily Star (2011). It's political instability, not climate. The Daily Star.

Thomas, J.W & Grindle, M.S (1990). ‘After the Decision: Implementing Policy Reforms in Developing Countries’, World Development 18:8. pp. 1163-1191.

Thomas, V. (2010). Evaluation Systems, Ethics and Development Evaluation, In Goodyear, L (Ed.), Ethical Challenges. American Journal of Evaluation 31 (4) 540-558

Thoms, Oskar, Ron, J. & Paris, R. (2008). The Effects of Transitional Justice Mechanisms. A Summary of Empirical Research Findings and Implications for Analysts and Practitioners, Centre for International Policy Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa.

Thomson, Susan (2011a), “Whispering Truth to Power: The Everyday Resistance of Peasant Rwandans to Post-Genocide Reconciliation” African Affairs, 100(440), July 2011, pp. 439-456.

Thomson, Susan M. (2011b). ‘Reeducation for Reconciliation: Participant Observations on Ingando’, in Scott Straus and Lars Waldorf, eds., Remaking Rwanda: State Building and Human Rights after Mass Violence (University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, WI), pp. 331-342.

Thomson, Susan M. (2009a) “‘That is not what we authorised you to do…’: Access and government interference in highly politicised research environments”. In Chandra Lekha Sriram, John C. King, Julie A. Mertus, Olga Martín-Ortega and Johanna Herman, eds. Surviving Field Research: Working in violent and difficult situations. London: Routledge, pp. 108-124.

Thomson, Susan M. (2009b). “Developing Ethical Guidelines for Researchers working in Post-Conflict Environments”. Research Report prepared for the Program on States and Security, City University of New York. December 2008.

Tijssen, R. (2003). ‘Scoreboards of research excellence’, Research Evaluation , pp. 91-103.

Tijssen, R. J., Mouton, J., van Leeuwen, T. N., & Boshoff, N. (2006, December). How relevant are local scholarly journals in global science? A case study of South Africa. Research Evaluation, Vol. 15 (3), pp. 163-174.

Toulemonde, Jacques, (1995). ‘The emergence of an Evaluation Profession in European Countries: The Case of Structural Policies’, Knowledge and Policy, Fall 1995.

Truman, Carole (2002) Doing Feminist Evaluation with Men: Achieving Objectivity in a Sexual Health Needs Assessment, in New Directions for Evaluation, no. 96, Winter 2002 (27 – 40)

UNAIDS (2004) The ‘Three Ones’: Driving concerted action on AIDS at country level. Geneva, UNAIDS. Document available at

UNEG/ United Nations Evaluation Group (2008). UNEG Ethical Guidelines for Evaluation, Available at: (Accessed on July 25, 2011.)

UNEG/ United Nations Evaluation Group, (2005). Standards for Evaluation in the UN System. Retrieved from:

Unerman, J. & O’Dwyer, B. (2006).’Theorising accountability for NGO advocacy’, Accountability, Auditing and Accountability Journal 19:3, pp. 349-376.

United Nations Security Council, (2004). The rule of law and transitional justice in conflict and post- conflict societies. Report by the Secretary General: 23 August, 2004. S/2004/616;

Uphoff, Norman (1992a). ‘Monitoring and Evaluating Popular Participation in World Bank-Assisted Projects’, in Bhatnagar, B. & Williams, A.C (eds), Participatory Development and the World Bank: Potential Directions for Change, World Bank Discussion Paper 183 World Bank, Washington. pp. 135-153.

Uphoff, Norman (1992b). Learning from Gal Oya: Possibilities for Participatory Development and Post-Newtonian Social Science, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press

USAID (2011). Theories of Changes and Indicator Development in Conflict Management and Mitigation. USAID, Washington D.C. Retrieved from:

USAID (2008, May). Conflict- Sensitive Approaches to Value Chain Development. USAID, Washington D.C. Retrieved from:

Uvin, Peter (1999). The Influence of Aid in Situations of Violent Conflict: A synthesis and a commentary on the lessons learned from case studies on the limits and scope for the use of development assistance incentives and disincentives for influencing conflict situations. Paris: OECD DAC.

Verkoren, Willemijn (2008). ‘Debating Complexity: The Value of Complexity for Development’, The Broker on-line. <>

Vernoony, Ronnie (Ed.) (2006) Social and Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Management, Learning Studies and Lessons from Asia, New Delhi: IDRC / Sage Publications. Accessed on 16th May 2011 at

Wagner, C. S., Roessner, J., Bobb, K., Thompson Klein, J., Boyack, K. W., Keyton, J., et al. (2011). Approaches to understanding and measuring interdisciplinary scientific research (IDR): A review of the literature. Journal of Infometrics. Pp. 14-26.

Ward, Kristin J. (2002) ‘Reflections on a Job Done: Well?’ in New Directions for Evaluation, no. 96, Winter 2002 (27 – 40)

Ware, M. (2011). ‘Peer review: recent experience and future direction’, New Review of Information Networking, pp. 23-53.

Webb, C. (1993). Feminist research: definitions, methodology, methods and evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, pp. 416-423.

Weick, Karl (2001). Making sense of the organization, Blackwell Business, Oxford.

Weingart, P. (1999). Scientific Expertise and Political Accountability: Paradoxes of Science in Politics. Science and Public Policy (3), pp. 151.

Weiss, C. (2009). Forward in. Carden, F. (ed) Knowledge to Policy. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. Canada.

Weiss, C. (1980). ‘Knowledge creep and Decision Accretion’, Science Communication. Volume 1, (3), pp.381-404.

Weiss, C, (1979). ‘The many meanings of research utilization’, Public Administration Review (5), pp. 426-431.

WHO (2003)., Inventory of Health as a Bridge to Peace Interventions by WHO,” A. Manenti, C. Cassabalian, Department of Emergency and Humanitarian Action, March.

WHO Europe and DFID, (1999). WHO/DFID Peace Through Health Programme: A Case Study Prepared by the WHO Field Team in Bosnia Herzegovina , Partnerships in Health and Emergency Assistance. WHO, Copenhagen

Wickramasinghe, M. (2010) Feminist Research Methodology – Making Meanings of Meaning Making, London / New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Wickramasinghe, M (2000) From Theory to Action – Women, Gender and Development, Colombo: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

Wignaraja, P., (2005). Fundamentals of Poverty Eradication in South Asia, Conference on Good Governance, Poverty Reduction and Community Resilience, Green Movement of Sri Lanka and Disaster and Development Centre, United Kingdom.

Wilson, D. & Halperin, D.T. (2008) ‘Know your epidemic, know your response’: A useful approach, if we get it right. The Lancet, 372(9637), pp. 423-426.

Wittig, M. (1981) ‘One is not born a woman’, Feminist Issues, 1 (2), (47–54).

Wood, Elizabeth Jean (2006). ‘The Ethical Challenges of Field Research in Conflict Zones.’ Qualitative Sociology 29: 373-386.   

Wooding, S. & Grant, J. (2003). Assessing Research: The Researcher's View. Retrieved from RA Review: <>

World Bank (2009a). The Towers of Learning Performance, Peril and Promise of Higher Education in Sri Lanka. Retrieved August 28 2011, from World Bank - Human Development Unit :

World Bank (2009b, September). Afghanistan: Expanding Access to Quality Education. Retrieved from Projects and Operations:,,contentMDK:21289161~menuPK:64282137~pagePK:41367~piPK:279616~theSitePK:40941,00.html

World Bank (2007). Bangladesh: Country Summary of Higher Education. Retrieved from the Siteresources (2011, August 20):

World Bank. (2000), Higher Education in Developing countries: Perils and Promise. Retrieved from the World Bank - Task Force on Higher Education and Society (2011, August 25):

World Economic Forum (2007) Global Gender-Gap Report 2007. Available at:

World Health Organization Europe and DFID (1999). WO/DFID Peace Through Health Programme: A Case Study Prepared by the WHO Field Team in Bosnia Herzegovina (Principal Author: Gregory Hess), Partnerships in Health and Emergency Assistance. EUR/ICP/CORD 030501. WHO Copenhagen.

Wu, H., Ismail, S., Guthrie, S., & Wooding, S. (2011). Alternatives to Peer Review in Research Project Funding. RAND Corporation, Cambridge, UK.

Wunderlich, J. (2012). Evaluation Approaches. D&E Peacebuilding. Retrieved from:

Yates, L. (2005). ‘Is Impact a measure of Quality? Some Reflections on the Research Quality and Impact Assessment Agendas’, European Educational Research Journal, Volume 4 (4), pp. 391-403.

Yule, M. (2010). Assessing Research Quality. International Development Research Centre - Peace Conflict and Development, Ottawa.

Zaveri, S. (2003) Mid-term Review of Projects in Children Affected By HIV/AIDS, including children of sex workers, HIV affected children and street children, New Dehli, FHI India.

Zeitoun, M. and J. Warner (2006). "Hydro-Hegemony: A Framework for Analysis of Transboundary Water Conflicts." Water Policy 8(5): 435-460.